Manufacturing equipment[edit]
Breton S.P.A., a privately held company of Treviso, Italy, is the dominant supplier of equipment for making engineered stone. A mixture of approximately 93% stone aggregates and 7% polyester resin by weight (66% quartz and 34% resin by volume) is pressed into slabs (or larger blocks) using Breton’s “vibrocompression vacuum process”.[2] [3]

Although Breton was the original manufacturer of moulding equipment and still holds multiple international patents on the process, there are now several other companies producing similar machinery.

Composition[edit]
Stone aggregates is the major filler, although other material like coloured glass, shells, metals, or mirrors might be added. A typical resin based material will consist of 93% stone aggregates by weight and 7% resin. Different types of resins are used by different manufacturers. Epoxy and polyester resin are the most common types. Chemicals such as UV absorbers and stabilizers are added. To aid curing, hydrogen peroxide is added.

Prominent quartz countertop maker Caesarstone notes that 93% natural quartz aggregates are mixed with the remaining 7% of color pigments and polymer resins. The resins bind the particles together.[4]

Process[edit]
The process of manufacturing engineered stone can be broken down into

creating/gathering the material.
forming the block/slab using industrial machine.
processing the finished block/slab into tiles or other products.
The most essential is obviously the first part: some companies import boulders themselves to crush into agglomerates (stone powders) of various grain size for their products, others simply buy already-crushed stone powders.

After the block / slab is formed and cured (this usually takes between three and seven days depending on products and weather conditions), the stone can be processed in basically the same manner as its natural counterpart.

Properties[edit]
Engineered stone is typically worked in the same way as natural stone using a water jet cutter or a diamond blade. This is in contrast with solid surface materials which can be cut with regular saws.[5]

The material can be produced in either 12 mm, 20 mm or 30 mm thicknesses. The most common slab format is 3040 mm x 1440 mm for Quartz and 3050 mm x 1240 mm for Breton-based marbles, but other sizes like 3040 mm x 1650 mm are produced according to market demand.

Engineered stone is less porous, more flexible, and harder than many types of natural stone.[6] Less porous varieties are more resistant to mould and mildew than most natural stone types.[7] Since it has a uniform internal structure, it does not have hidden cracks or flaws that may exist in natural stone. Its polyester resin binding agents allow some flexibility, preventing cracking under flexural pressure. But, the binding agents often continue to harden, leading to a loss of flexural strength over time. The polyester resins are not completely UV stable and engineered stone should not be used in outdoor applications. Continuous exposure to UV can cause discoloration of the stone, and breakdown of the resin binder.

The material is sometimes damaged by direct application of heat. Quartz engineered stone is less heat resistant than other stone surfaces including most granite, marble and limestone; but is not affected by temperatures lower than 150 °C (300 °F). Quartz engineered stone can be damaged by sudden temperature changes. Manufacturers recommend that hot pots and pans never be placed directly on the surface, and that a hot pad or trivet is used under portable cooking units.

When used as floor tiles, care is required in ensuring compatibility with the adhesive used. Reaction resin adhesives and rapid drying cementitious adhesives are generally successful, but bond failure can occur with other cementitious adhesives. Additionally, agglomerate stone tiles are more sensitive to both thermal expansion and contraction and to dampness from underlying screeds, necessitating the inclusion of movement joints at a higher frequency than for stone or ceramic floor tiles (see for example British Standard BS 5385-5: 2011) and verification by testing of the dryness of underlying layers.

Difference between marble and quartz[edit]
Although both the marble- and quartz-based engineered stones are created through a similar process, and multiple companies produce both at the same time, there are distinct differences in their properties and applications.

 

Quartz meanwhile is a much harder material. The Mohs scale of marble is roughly 3, where as quartz are usually at 7. This makes them much more resistant to scratching, however it also makes re-polishing and general processing of them a more difficult task, which is why they are most commonly used for kitchen counter tops, where the value added through processing can offset their considerably higher cost.

 

Health issues[edit]
As with any silica-containing stone, silicosis may result from breathing dust produced when cutting or processing engineered stone made with quartz. The risk of inhaling quartz dust can be mitigated by taking appropriate safety precautions.[8] Risk of silicosis is high when little or no safety precautions or protective equipment are used. This may occur in small shops or in countries where the industry is not regulated or monitored.[9]

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