Ideas-for-Kitchen-Bath

Ideas for Kitchen

Ideas for Kitchen Bath

Project Gallery

A countertop (also counter top, counter, benchtop, (British English) worktop, or (Australian English) kitchen bench) is a horizontal work surface in kitchens or other food preparation areas, bathrooms or lavatories, and workrooms in general. It is frequently installed upon and supported by cabinets. The surface is positioned at an ergonomic height for the user and the particular task for which it is designed. A countertop may be constructed of various materials with different attributes of functionality, durability, and aesthetics. The countertop may have built-in applicances, or accessory items relative to the intended application.

In Australian English, the term counter is generally reserved for a surface of this type that forms a boundary between a space for public use and a space for workers to carry out service tasks. In other contexts, the term bench or benchtop is used.

 

When installed in a kitchen on standard (U.S) wall-mounted base unit cabinets, countertops are typically about 25-26 inches (635–660 mm) from front to back and are designed with a slight overhang on the front (leading) edge. This allows for a convenient reach to objects at the back of the countertop while protecting the base cabinet faces. In the UK the standard width is 600 mm (Approximately 24 inches). Finished heights from the floor will vary depending on usage but typically will be 35-36″ (889–914 mm), with a material thickness depending on that chosen. They may include an integrated or applied backsplash (UK: upstand) to prevent spills and objects from falling behind the cabinets. Kitchen countertops may also be installed on freestanding islands, dining areas or bars, desk and table tops, and other specialized task areas; as before, they may incorporate cantilevers, freespans and overhangs depending on application. The horizontal surface and vertical edges of the countertop can be decorated in manners ranging from plain to very elaborate. They are often conformed to accommodate the installation of sinks, stoves (cookers), ranges, and cooktops, or other accessories such as dispensers, integrated drain boards, and cutting boards.

Laboratory countertops[edit]

top view of a grey lab countertop with blue drawers

Side shot of a lab workspace
Laboratory countertops are countertops used specifically in science fields for educational labs or research purposes. They can be used to place equipments, tools, projects and chemicals. Characteristics of laboratory countertops are generally determined according to what reagents or corrosive chemicals are being used. The purpose of the countertop would be different depending on whether it is used in a chemistry lab, physics lab, food science lab, microbiology or a biology lab. Common characteristics of preferred laboratory countertops are ones that are strong, durable, and water-, moisture- or chemical resistant. Depending on the objectives of a lab, they may additionally be required to be resistant to acids or high temperatures.[1]

Many laboratory countertops are equipped with drawers that can be used to store materials that might get in the way while conducting an experiment. Materials such as lab notebooks, pencils, extra papers and folders are advised and expected to be stored away in the provided spaces or inside the drawer. The laboratory countertops’ styles and variations may differ according to where they are (geographical location) and what labs they are being used for. They are also often made of different materials depending on their usage.

The most common and durable type of material used is phenolic resin because they are lightweight, strong, chemical and moisture resistant. It can handle heat exposure up to 350 °F (176 °C), beyond this temperature Epoxy Resin is used. Phenolic Resin and Epoxy Resin are both functionally equivalent, but differ in their heat handling abilities. Other materials to build laboratory countertops may include plastic laminate, stainless steel and even wood.[2]

Materials[edit]
Countertops can be made from a wide range of materials[3] and the cost of the completed countertop can vary widely depending on the material chosen.[4] The durability and ease of use of the material often rises with the increasing cost of the material but some costly materials are neither particularly durable nor user-friendly. Some common countertop materials are as follows:

Natural stones
Granite
Limestone
Marble
Soapstone
Gabbro
Slate
Silicate mineral
Travertine
Quartz
Wood
Hardwood
Softwood
Metals
Stainless steel
Copper
Zinc
Aluminium
Crafted glass
Manufactured materials
Concrete
Cast-in-place
Precast
Processed slabs
Compressed paper or fiber
Cultured marble
High pressure laminates
Post-formed high-pressure decorative laminates
Self-edged high-pressure decorative laminates
Quartz surfacing or engineered stone is 99.9% solid @ 93% aggregate / 7% polyester resin (by weight), colors and binders
Recycled Glass surface either with concrete or polyester resin binders
Solid-surface acrylic plastic materials
Solid-surface polyester acrylic
Terrazzo
Tile
Cast-in-place materials
Natural stone suspended in a resin
Post-consumer glass suspended in a resin
Epoxy
Phenolic resin
Natural stone[edit]

Kitchen stone countertops, USA
Natural stone is one of the most commonly used materials in countertops. Natural stone or dimension stone slabs (e.g. granite) are shaped using cutting and finishing equipment in the shop of the fabricator. The edges are commonly put on by hand-held routers, grinders, or CNC equipment. If the stone has a highly variegated pattern, the stone may be laid out in final position in the shop for the customer’s inspection, or the stone slabs may be selected by experienced inspectors. Emerging technology allows for virtual stone placement on a computer. Exact photographs can now be taken which allow for the integration of a dxf file to lay on top of a stone image.[citation needed] Multiple slabs of material may be used in this layout process. Then the countertop assembly is installed on the job site by professionals. Commonly, initial countertop fabrication takes place at or near the quarry of origin, with blocks being sawn to thickness and then machined into standard widths (600mm and upwards), before being surface polished and edged. This method removes the need to ship waste material, and reduces the time needed to prepare client orders.[citation needed] This practice is called “cut to size” A wide range of details may be pre-machined by the fabricator, allowing for installation of different sinks and cooker designs.[5] A common drawback to natural stone is the need for sealing to prevent harboring of bacteria and/or fluids that may cause staining. In recent years oleophobic impregnators have been introduced as an alternative to surface sealers.[citation needed] With the advent of impregnators the frequency of sealing has been cut down to once every five to ten years on most materials.[6]

 

The postform countertop is typically a high volume factory-produced product, which accounts for the economy of the product. The material composition consists of a single thin sheet of laminate (typically .030″ – .040″ in thickness) that gets bonded to a 45# density particle board substrate (or other similar base material such as MDF – medium density fiberboard, or plywood), with a PVA adhesive (poly vinyl acetate – a water-based adhesive). Traditionally postform countertops were manufactured with a solvent-based contact cement (a highly flammable, volatile organic compound – VOC). However, in today’s marketplace PVA adhesives have taken over for reasons of environmental responsibility (no VOC’s), safety (non-combustible), economy, and strength of the glue line.

A typical system consists of the following:

An automated infeed system for sequencing the particle board into production.
The CorFab Machine, an automated feed-through machine that cuts to size, cuts and bonds build down sticks with a hot-melt adhesive to the under side of the substrate, and shapes the edge detail, all in a single motion.
An automated laminating system that applies the adhesive to both the substrate and laminate.
An indexing unit that aligns the laminate to the substrate with the proper overhang.
A Pinch Roller that makes the bond between the laminate and substrate.
The Postforming Machine, that not only heats and forms the laminate around the substrate, but also cuts away the backsplash (when the top is to be used against a wall) from the main deck, all in a feed-through motion machine.
The AutoCove Machine, which heats and forms the backsplash upward 90 degrees, locking it into place with what is referred to as a cove stick, utilizing hot melt adhesive technology to hold it all together.
The final stage of the system usually consists of a trim saw that cuts the countertops to rough lengths, typically 8′, 10′ and 12′, ready for distribution.
Once manufactured the tops need only to be cut to length, mitered, fitted for assembly, and end capped (only if it is a visible finished end). A very specific machine for cutting the postform countertop is manufactured by only a few companies, it is commonly called a Cutting Station, Top Saw, or simply Miter Saw. This machine accurately cuts the countertop to field dimensions, making it easy for the installer to make the final scribe cuts on-site to complete the work. Sink cut outs can be made either in the field or at the installers shop.

Overall, the postform countertop is the most economical countertop on the market, and has the broadest selection of surface material to choose from. Surfaces can be either a solid color, or a pattern, and textures range from a satin funiture finish to a heavily textured stone or pebbled appearance to a high gloss resolution. Because of this diversity, the postform countertop can satisfy a wide variety of design applications, and due to its economy, it can be easily replaced to provide a fresh appearance in any room.

Self edge or wood edge laminate[edit]
Self or wood edge plastic laminate countertops are also very popular for those who chose to have few or no surface seams. In this style, the top shop uses substrate for the countertop out of MDF, or particle board and then glue sheets of laminate to the substrate using Contact Cement. The laminate is then trimmed using a router. This method can’t reproduce the curved contours of post-formed countertopping but can be made to easily conform to a much-wider range of floor plans with fewer seams.

Crafted glass[edit]
Custom architectural crafted glass, tempered glass, textured glass pieces, and the ancient art of verre églomisé, or reverse gilded glass, are applied to contemporary uses including countertops, backsplashes, and tabletops. Glass work may be customized to suit by craftsmen in the studio, then installed on site either in small components (such as a kitchen countertop composed of three rectangles of verre églomisé) or as immense, single units (for example, a glass countertop and sink basin formed of one continuous piece of textured glass). Surface texture comes in several variations, such as sanded, melted, pixels, and linear. Glass countertops also often have customized edges, including: bushed polished, textured, and fire polished edges. The glass is non-porous, relatively stain-proof, extremely hygienic, and “extremely heat resistant (up to 700 degrees).”[7] Much work is being done to “recycle” glass using sources such as post consumer glass or post industrial float glass. The material can be crushed or cut into strips that is heated until the softening point of glass, binding the loose material back into a solid form.

Ribbons of colored glass fused into a solid slab
Tile[edit]
Tile, including ceramic tile and stone tile, is installed in much the same way as flat lay laminate except that the gaps between the tiles are grouted after the tile has been glued down.

Solid surface materials[edit]
Solid surface acrylic or polyester materials are usually prefabricated at the installer’s shop and then assembled on site. The material is readily glued and the glue joints are then sanded, leaving almost no visible trace of the joint. The edge treatment for solid-surface countertops can be very elaborate. The material itself is usually only about 12 mm (1/2 inch) thick so an edge is usually created by stacking up two or three layers of the material. The built-up edge then can be shaped to a rounded edge or an ogee. Fancier edge treatments are more expensive.

Engineered quartz surfacing[edit]
Engineered stone quartz surfacing is made from approximately 95% natural quartz and 5% polymer resins (by weight). Testing has shown that they retain much of the toughness of quartz but display increased ductility due to the resin, improving impact resistance.[8] Countertops are custom made and more scratch resistant as well as less porous than natural quartz surfaces, and don’t need to be sealed like other stone surfaces. Due to the presence of the resins, quartz counters are less prone to staining. Thicknesses may be 6mm, 1.2 cm (1/2 inch), 2 cm (3/4 inch), 3 cm (1¼ inch) or 4 cm (1½ inch). Brands include CMMA Solid Surface by World BMC, Hanstone, NaturaStone, Silestone, Q, Caesarstone, Technistone, Cambria, and Zodiaq.

Ideas for Kitchen

Ideas for Kitchen Bath

Project Gallery

A countertop (also counter top, counter, benchtop, (British English) worktop, or (Australian English) kitchen bench) is a horizontal work surface in kitchens or other food preparation areas, bathrooms or lavatories, and workrooms in general. It is frequently installed upon and supported by cabinets. The surface is positioned at an ergonomic height for the user and the particular task for which it is designed. A countertop may be constructed of various materials with different attributes of functionality, durability, and aesthetics. The countertop may have built-in applicances, or accessory items relative to the intended application.

In Australian English, the term counter is generally reserved for a surface of this type that forms a boundary between a space for public use and a space for workers to carry out service tasks. In other contexts, the term bench or benchtop is used.

 

When installed in a kitchen on standard (U.S) wall-mounted base unit cabinets, countertops are typically about 25-26 inches (635–660 mm) from front to back and are designed with a slight overhang on the front (leading) edge. This allows for a convenient reach to objects at the back of the countertop while protecting the base cabinet faces. In the UK the standard width is 600 mm (Approximately 24 inches). Finished heights from the floor will vary depending on usage but typically will be 35-36″ (889–914 mm), with a material thickness depending on that chosen. They may include an integrated or applied backsplash (UK: upstand) to prevent spills and objects from falling behind the cabinets. Kitchen countertops may also be installed on freestanding islands, dining areas or bars, desk and table tops, and other specialized task areas; as before, they may incorporate cantilevers, freespans and overhangs depending on application. The horizontal surface and vertical edges of the countertop can be decorated in manners ranging from plain to very elaborate. They are often conformed to accommodate the installation of sinks, stoves (cookers), ranges, and cooktops, or other accessories such as dispensers, integrated drain boards, and cutting boards.

Laboratory countertops[edit]

top view of a grey lab countertop with blue drawers

Side shot of a lab workspace
Laboratory countertops are countertops used specifically in science fields for educational labs or research purposes. They can be used to place equipments, tools, projects and chemicals. Characteristics of laboratory countertops are generally determined according to what reagents or corrosive chemicals are being used. The purpose of the countertop would be different depending on whether it is used in a chemistry lab, physics lab, food science lab, microbiology or a biology lab. Common characteristics of preferred laboratory countertops are ones that are strong, durable, and water-, moisture- or chemical resistant. Depending on the objectives of a lab, they may additionally be required to be resistant to acids or high temperatures.[1]

Many laboratory countertops are equipped with drawers that can be used to store materials that might get in the way while conducting an experiment. Materials such as lab notebooks, pencils, extra papers and folders are advised and expected to be stored away in the provided spaces or inside the drawer. The laboratory countertops’ styles and variations may differ according to where they are (geographical location) and what labs they are being used for. They are also often made of different materials depending on their usage.

The most common and durable type of material used is phenolic resin because they are lightweight, strong, chemical and moisture resistant. It can handle heat exposure up to 350 °F (176 °C), beyond this temperature Epoxy Resin is used. Phenolic Resin and Epoxy Resin are both functionally equivalent, but differ in their heat handling abilities. Other materials to build laboratory countertops may include plastic laminate, stainless steel and even wood.[2]

Materials[edit]
Countertops can be made from a wide range of materials[3] and the cost of the completed countertop can vary widely depending on the material chosen.[4] The durability and ease of use of the material often rises with the increasing cost of the material but some costly materials are neither particularly durable nor user-friendly. Some common countertop materials are as follows:

Natural stones
Granite
Limestone
Marble
Soapstone
Gabbro
Slate
Silicate mineral
Travertine
Quartz
Wood
Hardwood
Softwood
Metals
Stainless steel
Copper
Zinc
Aluminium
Crafted glass
Manufactured materials
Concrete
Cast-in-place
Precast
Processed slabs
Compressed paper or fiber
Cultured marble
High pressure laminates
Post-formed high-pressure decorative laminates
Self-edged high-pressure decorative laminates
Quartz surfacing or engineered stone is 99.9% solid @ 93% aggregate / 7% polyester resin (by weight), colors and binders
Recycled Glass surface either with concrete or polyester resin binders
Solid-surface acrylic plastic materials
Solid-surface polyester acrylic
Terrazzo
Tile
Cast-in-place materials
Natural stone suspended in a resin
Post-consumer glass suspended in a resin
Epoxy
Phenolic resin
Natural stone[edit]

Kitchen stone countertops, USA
Natural stone is one of the most commonly used materials in countertops. Natural stone or dimension stone slabs (e.g. granite) are shaped using cutting and finishing equipment in the shop of the fabricator. The edges are commonly put on by hand-held routers, grinders, or CNC equipment. If the stone has a highly variegated pattern, the stone may be laid out in final position in the shop for the customer’s inspection, or the stone slabs may be selected by experienced inspectors. Emerging technology allows for virtual stone placement on a computer. Exact photographs can now be taken which allow for the integration of a dxf file to lay on top of a stone image.[citation needed] Multiple slabs of material may be used in this layout process. Then the countertop assembly is installed on the job site by professionals. Commonly, initial countertop fabrication takes place at or near the quarry of origin, with blocks being sawn to thickness and then machined into standard widths (600mm and upwards), before being surface polished and edged. This method removes the need to ship waste material, and reduces the time needed to prepare client orders.[citation needed] This practice is called “cut to size” A wide range of details may be pre-machined by the fabricator, allowing for installation of different sinks and cooker designs.[5] A common drawback to natural stone is the need for sealing to prevent harboring of bacteria and/or fluids that may cause staining. In recent years oleophobic impregnators have been introduced as an alternative to surface sealers.[citation needed] With the advent of impregnators the frequency of sealing has been cut down to once every five to ten years on most materials.[6]

 

The postform countertop is typically a high volume factory-produced product, which accounts for the economy of the product. The material composition consists of a single thin sheet of laminate (typically .030″ – .040″ in thickness) that gets bonded to a 45# density particle board substrate (or other similar base material such as MDF – medium density fiberboard, or plywood), with a PVA adhesive (poly vinyl acetate – a water-based adhesive). Traditionally postform countertops were manufactured with a solvent-based contact cement (a highly flammable, volatile organic compound – VOC). However, in today’s marketplace PVA adhesives have taken over for reasons of environmental responsibility (no VOC’s), safety (non-combustible), economy, and strength of the glue line.

A typical system consists of the following:

An automated infeed system for sequencing the particle board into production.
The CorFab Machine, an automated feed-through machine that cuts to size, cuts and bonds build down sticks with a hot-melt adhesive to the under side of the substrate, and shapes the edge detail, all in a single motion.
An automated laminating system that applies the adhesive to both the substrate and laminate.
An indexing unit that aligns the laminate to the substrate with the proper overhang.
A Pinch Roller that makes the bond between the laminate and substrate.
The Postforming Machine, that not only heats and forms the laminate around the substrate, but also cuts away the backsplash (when the top is to be used against a wall) from the main deck, all in a feed-through motion machine.
The AutoCove Machine, which heats and forms the backsplash upward 90 degrees, locking it into place with what is referred to as a cove stick, utilizing hot melt adhesive technology to hold it all together.
The final stage of the system usually consists of a trim saw that cuts the countertops to rough lengths, typically 8′, 10′ and 12′, ready for distribution.
Once manufactured the tops need only to be cut to length, mitered, fitted for assembly, and end capped (only if it is a visible finished end). A very specific machine for cutting the postform countertop is manufactured by only a few companies, it is commonly called a Cutting Station, Top Saw, or simply Miter Saw. This machine accurately cuts the countertop to field dimensions, making it easy for the installer to make the final scribe cuts on-site to complete the work. Sink cut outs can be made either in the field or at the installers shop.

Overall, the postform countertop is the most economical countertop on the market, and has the broadest selection of surface material to choose from. Surfaces can be either a solid color, or a pattern, and textures range from a satin funiture finish to a heavily textured stone or pebbled appearance to a high gloss resolution. Because of this diversity, the postform countertop can satisfy a wide variety of design applications, and due to its economy, it can be easily replaced to provide a fresh appearance in any room.

Self edge or wood edge laminate[edit]
Self or wood edge plastic laminate countertops are also very popular for those who chose to have few or no surface seams. In this style, the top shop uses substrate for the countertop out of MDF, or particle board and then glue sheets of laminate to the substrate using Contact Cement. The laminate is then trimmed using a router. This method can’t reproduce the curved contours of post-formed countertopping but can be made to easily conform to a much-wider range of floor plans with fewer seams.

Crafted glass[edit]
Custom architectural crafted glass, tempered glass, textured glass pieces, and the ancient art of verre églomisé, or reverse gilded glass, are applied to contemporary uses including countertops, backsplashes, and tabletops. Glass work may be customized to suit by craftsmen in the studio, then installed on site either in small components (such as a kitchen countertop composed of three rectangles of verre églomisé) or as immense, single units (for example, a glass countertop and sink basin formed of one continuous piece of textured glass). Surface texture comes in several variations, such as sanded, melted, pixels, and linear. Glass countertops also often have customized edges, including: bushed polished, textured, and fire polished edges. The glass is non-porous, relatively stain-proof, extremely hygienic, and “extremely heat resistant (up to 700 degrees).”[7] Much work is being done to “recycle” glass using sources such as post consumer glass or post industrial float glass. The material can be crushed or cut into strips that is heated until the softening point of glass, binding the loose material back into a solid form.

Ribbons of colored glass fused into a solid slab
Tile[edit]
Tile, including ceramic tile and stone tile, is installed in much the same way as flat lay laminate except that the gaps between the tiles are grouted after the tile has been glued down.

Solid surface materials[edit]
Solid surface acrylic or polyester materials are usually prefabricated at the installer’s shop and then assembled on site. The material is readily glued and the glue joints are then sanded, leaving almost no visible trace of the joint. The edge treatment for solid-surface countertops can be very elaborate. The material itself is usually only about 12 mm (1/2 inch) thick so an edge is usually created by stacking up two or three layers of the material. The built-up edge then can be shaped to a rounded edge or an ogee. Fancier edge treatments are more expensive.

Engineered quartz surfacing[edit]
Engineered stone quartz surfacing is made from approximately 95% natural quartz and 5% polymer resins (by weight). Testing has shown that they retain much of the toughness of quartz but display increased ductility due to the resin, improving impact resistance.[8] Countertops are custom made and more scratch resistant as well as less porous than natural quartz surfaces, and don’t need to be sealed like other stone surfaces. Due to the presence of the resins, quartz counters are less prone to staining. Thicknesses may be 6mm, 1.2 cm (1/2 inch), 2 cm (3/4 inch), 3 cm (1¼ inch) or 4 cm (1½ inch). Brands include CMMA Solid Surface by World BMC, Hanstone, NaturaStone, Silestone, Q, Caesarstone, Technistone, Cambria, and Zodiaq.

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ideas-for-kitchen-bath
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marble countertops pros and cons
marble vs granite countertops
marble countertops cost
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marble countertops care
marble kitchen cabinets
modern marble kitchen designs
kitchen marble slab design
carrara marble countertop price per square foot
granite countertops pros and cons
marble vs granite vs quartz
marble kitchen countertops cost
marble bathroom countertops pros and cons
marble vs granite flooring
which is harder granite or marble
marble vs granite geology
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granite vs marble headstones
what is more expensive granite or quartz
which is heavier granite or marble

kitchen and bath ideas magazine
kitchen bathroom photos
dream kitchens and baths magazine
kitchen magazines 2016
beautiful kitchens and baths magazine 2017
beautiful kitchens and baths magazine summer 2017
kitchen design magazines
best kitchen magazines
signature kitchen and bath magazine
bathroom design magazine
bathroom ideas photo gallery
simple bathroom designs
bathroom design gallery
small bathroom design ideas
bathroom designs for small spaces
modern bathroom designs
bathroom ideas on a budget
bathroom decorating ideas

 

Ideas for Kitchen Bath

projects gallery st louis
project gallery los angeles
field projects gallery in manhattan
centsational girl project gallery
laca projects gallery
the scar project gallery

ideas-for-kitchen-bath
gallery project ann arbor
field projects gallery
download photo gallery software
barrett barrera projects
house painting contractor photos
project los angeles club
projects gallery
royale projects gallery los angeles
groundspace project gallery los angeles
c nichols artist
project la south
regen projects gallery los angeles
project la

marble countertops pros and cons
marble vs granite countertops
marble countertops cost
marble countertops prices
marble countertops care
marble kitchen cabinets
modern marble kitchen designs
kitchen marble slab design
carrara marble countertop price per square foot
granite countertops pros and cons
marble vs granite vs quartz
marble kitchen countertops cost
marble bathroom countertops pros and cons
marble vs granite flooring
which is harder granite or marble
marble vs granite geology
granite vs marble price india
granite vs marble headstones
what is more expensive granite or quartz
which is heavier granite or marble

kitchen and bath ideas magazine
kitchen bathroom photos
dream kitchens and baths magazine
kitchen magazines 2016
beautiful kitchens and baths magazine 2017
beautiful kitchens and baths magazine summer 2017
kitchen design magazines
best kitchen magazines
signature kitchen and bath magazine
bathroom design magazine
bathroom ideas photo gallery
simple bathroom designs
bathroom design gallery
small bathroom design ideas
bathroom designs for small spaces
modern bathroom designs
bathroom ideas on a budget
bathroom decorating ideas

 

Ideas for Kitchen Bath